Integrated Theoretical and flying instruction
The training comprises:
- Theoretical Knowledge Instruction (Tuition)
- Computer Based Training
- Operational Flight Procedures (Long Briefing - LoB)
- One-to-one Flight Instruction with Pre- and De-briefing of flight performance
Phase 1 to 4 instructional methods in respect to operational briefings are classroom «Long briefing (LoB) », concerning operational techniques and procedures. These briefings will be scheduled for maximum one hour’s duration at predetermined dates and times. The topics of the «Long briefing» shall emphasise theoretical knowledge previously acquired and will be related to the flight manoeuvres to be introduced. The «Long briefing» programme is considered part of the flight briefings.
Face-to-face instructor -to-student pre- and post-flight briefings are mandatory before and after each flight lesson of training.
During the pre-flight briefing the instructor will include a general flight safety briefing including crew duties and responsibilities in the event of an actual emergency situation should arise.
The instructor will brief the manoeuvres to be practised in the sequence which they will be accomplished. The lesson content shall be in accordance with the actual training. Strictly adherence to the flight-training syllabus is mandatory. All new manoeuvres will be briefed and previously introduced manoeuvres will be reviewed as required.
The post-flight briefing will be conducted immediately after the training lesson is accomplished, at least during the same day.
The students will be trained to a high level of self-analyze of their performance and therefore they will start the de-briefing with lessons learned. It is essential that the instructor encourage and emphasise this process to let the student learn from their experience. If needed to complete the de-briefing, the instructor will present an objective critique of the student characteristic performance of each manoeuvre based of the description of the manoeuvre in the manuals.
The entire MPL(A) course is based strictly on standardised training methods and experience, thus adherence to syllabus is mandatory.
During the post-flight briefing, the student progress report for the lesson should be completed and signed by the Flight Instructor and student. The student should be invited to forward any questions concerning the flight.
All syllabus deviations, recommendations or non-standard performance that requires a remark should be noted in student Training Activity Record (TAR) and signed.
Competency Based Training
Competency based training is a performance-oriented training system based on clearly defined tasks which comprise the job to be learned; and it is also a systematic evaluation of competence as to how well the job is done.
- Competency-based training is outcome-oriented. It is what students can do and how well they can do it that matters.
- Competency-based training materials clearly state what is expected of trainees in terms of performance, in given conditions, and to what standards.
- Competency-based assessment during and after training, measures the performance of the trainee against a specified standard in a valid and reliable fashion.
The training programme is designed to provide the student with the skill and knowledge required to meet the Course Training Standard at the completion of the course. The Block/Phase completion standards are stated to ensure continuous monitoring of training effectiveness for each student. For the student, organising and planning are major keys to fulfil the objectives. The students’ part of the process is to ensure to be properly prepared, have proper diet, and have received adequate rest.
Training effectiveness is dependent upon active preparation at each training lesson by the student. One major key to fulfil the proficiency requirements is thorough study of lesson topics and objectives and to ensure good understanding of manoeuvres and procedures.
Actual flight time training available, as well as programmed CBT-time may be limited. Study of theoretic information and effect from mental preparation before each training situation will improve training effectiveness.
Grading is mandatory in order to ensure:
- Trend analysis for future training
- Detection of substandard performance
- Feedback to the individual pilot
Characteristic performance grading of individual manoeuvres will be made using the following scale:
The performance is not acceptable. Further training is compulsory before continuation.
A safe performance but calling for improvement. No immediate action necessary, but further training should normally be given.
A satisfactory performance. Deviations occur, but are recognised and corrected in a timely manner. (MPL Course Training Standard)
Threat and error management. (TEM)
Threat and error management (TEM) is a crucial component of new pilot licensing regulations, with the aim to prepare crews with the coordinative and cognitive ability to handle both routine situations and unforeseen surprises and anomalies.
Aviation is a dynamic, safety-critical operational world. Not all events are predictable. Crews must be able to apply skills and knowledge that they have acquired through training to situations that even the trainer was unable to foresee. These are skills and knowledge in the technical area of aircraft (systems) handling, but at least as importantly, these are generic (or non-technical) skills and knowledge that allow crews to recognize, discuss, adapt to, and absorb threats and challenges that fall outside of what they and their training had anticipated.
In the Core phase such generic skills are mainly expected to involve an increasing recognition and anticipation of threats and error pitfalls, where students don’t take their past success as a guarantee of continued safety. From the Basic phase and onward, this is expected to mature into a set of skills that allow students to coherently and succinctly discuss threats and errors, listen to and validate minority viewpoints, resist the fragmentation of problem-solving among crewmembers, and always keep a discussion of risk alive even when everything looks safe.
The various threat and error management discussion items proposed in the training syllabi should be seen not as a complete list, but as starting points for discussions with and among students. Every flight, and the context in which it is going to be performed, will doubtlessly offer additional items that may count as threats or potentially trigger erroneous assessments and actions. One measure of progress is students’ growing ability to anticipate and describe more potential threats and errors themselves as their training evolves.